What do you do when your computer crashes?
- Hit the monitor and scream at it.
- Stare blankly while contemplating your lost data.
- Calmly restore your data from your most recent backup.
Most users usually choose the first and second options before they decide to embrace the third. We'll cut straight to number 3 and learn how finding, installing and managing the latest backup drives and technologies is easy:
Identify Your Data Backup Needs
How you use your computer will determine what backup system works best for you. If you're only backing up a few Microsoft Office documents every day, a basic backup drive without too much memory will probably suffice. But if you work with video files, you'll need a fast, high-capacity backup drive, as six minutes of uncompressed high-definition video requires about 1GB of space on your drive.
Take a look at your computer and note what ports are available for plugging in a backup device. If space and ports are at a premium for you, Staples can install a second internal hard drive in most desktop enclosures (they usually have room for an additional drive) to serve as your backup.
It is widely recommended that your backup drive be twice as large as your computer's drive, so you'll have room to archive old files and the ability to back up current ones. Megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB) and terabytes (TB) are measurements for how much data a drive can store — be sure to match GB to GB and so on when you calculate how much drive space you need.
Most drives come with backup software and some drives include encryption software. Encryption is particularly valuable for businesses and professionals who keep copies of their backups off-site, as well as a safety mechanism if the hard drive gets stolen.
From flash drives that fit on your keychain to storing your data in the cloud, you have a variety of choices when it comes to where you back up your data:
- CDs and DVDs: If your computer has a CD/DVD burner, you can back up your data using software already in your system or with third-party software. Since a CD holds 700MB of data, a single-layer DVD holds 4.7GB and a double-layer DVD holds 8.5GB, you must back up large files on many disks.
- USB (Universal Serial Bus): USB 3 drives have entered the market and are ten times faster than USB 2. It's backwards compatible with USB 2 ports, and USB 2 devices will work in USB 3 ports.
- Firewire: Firewire is used for digital media editing; many camcorders and digital cameras have Firewire connections. Firewire drives are easily cabled together to create redundant backups.
- eSATA (external Serial Advanced Technological Attachment): These have the fastest transfer rates of any external hard drive, but they require a special interface or a card that is not compatible with many computers. However, any computer can usually accept an internal SATA drive without difficulty.
- RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Discs): RAID is often used in business settings because of its backup and uptime capabilities. A simple RAID setup is two drives running simultaneously, with one mirroring everything that is on the other. So if one drive stops working, the other will keep the system going without a glitch.
- Cloud-Based Backups: You can store your data using a cloud-based (online) service.
The best plan is to back up everything you use every day. Hard drive capacities have increased and prices have dropped to the point that this is possible. With everything backed up to an external hard drive, you'll be back to work much quicker. Redundancy is the key to backup success.
Match Your Backup Drive to Your Computer System
The kind of backup that's best for you will depend on the type of PC you own and how you use it:
- Laptops/Notebooks: A portable backup drive is best for mobile computing, since internet access for online backups is not always available when you need it. A flash drive or memory card can work for small-file backups, but a portable hard drive powered through the USB port of your laptop can handle a complete data backup.
- Stand-alone Desktops: An external drive with an AC adapter provides the most storage space for your dollar.
- Network-Attached Computers: To back up different computers on a network, special external hard drives can be attached to your home's or business's wireless router to back up everything on the network.
- Business Computers: RAID- and cloud-based backups (see below) provide options that are redundant and secure, but they are also expensive.
Online Versus Physical Backups
Online backup services provide you with space to store your data "in the cloud," meaning over the Internet into their servers. The main benefits of online backups are that your data is automatically stored off-site and copied to many servers, and it is automatically encrypted and checked for viruses before it is sent to the cloud.
The costs of online backups can add up because fees are ongoing and are based on how much data you store. Furthermore, if you back up lots of data, you may exceed the monthly limits of your Internet provider, incurring additional fees.
Backups: The More the Merrier
Having multiple copies of your most important data makes sense, but you shouldn't stop there. Also create copies of all your passwords, serial numbers and activation codes for any software you may need to reinstall, as well as information needed to reconnect your restored computer to your home network and the Internet.
If you have lots of passwords to keep track of, free programs are available that help you manage and encrypt all your passwords in one easy-to-use application.